See the general remarks on this series of oracles.
Four of the five Philistine cities are mentioned in this oracle, only Gath is left out.
Ekron fell to Assyria during the reign of Sennacherib, some fifty years after Amos; while Gaza and Ashkelon were captured by Tiglath-Pileser III (shortly after the date assigned to Amos).
According to 2 Chronicles 26:6 Uzziah of Judah (around Amos' time) "broke down the walls" of (Gath and) Ashdod and "built towns" in its territory.
Fire see above.
Ruler see above.
This page is part of the Hypertext Bible Commentary - Amos , if you have reached it as a standalone page, to view it in context, go to www.bible.gen.nz © Tim Bulkeley, 1996-2005, Tim Bulkeley. All rights reserved.