(German) "situation in life or setting", used in form criticism to refer to the sociological setting of the genres used. So the Sitz of a "supplication psalm" would be a day of fasting and supplication (e.g. Judg 20:26 or 2 Chron 20:3) while the historical setting of Ps 80 (a supplication) would be the exile.
Or see longer article.
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